Empirical or predictive? Leaders, you've got to pick a side. Do you want to create a learning organisation in which everyone is in touch with users and the environment, at a sustainable cadence of continual improvement?
"What if we're building a bridge," did I hear you say? 1. You're probably not 2. You never know what you'll find until you start digging 3. Even bridges come with stress sensors and smart motorway signs these days
Of course, Royce was working at a time when code and compute cycles were many orders of magnitude more costly than today, so he was unable to extend the full benefits of iteration as far as continuous delivery to users
Unable to easily cut production code, Royce advocated 'simulation' to reduce risk: "... the pilot effort could be compressed to three months perhaps... [the personnel involved] must have an intuitive feel for analysis, coding, and program design. They must quickly sense the trouble spots in the design, model them, model their alternatives... and finally arrive at an error-free program."